DIY, Electronics, Inspiring, LEDs, Lux, Robotics

DIY Vein viewing Device

The problem with veins:

I afraid of getting injections with syringes as it is a very painful experience. Unfortunately, for some people it is even more painful, if their veins are not clearly visible. In that case, usually nurses try to insert the needles into the body by guessing the vein’s position. Sometimes after three to four trails they have to change the spot and start to probe again for invisible veins. It’s particularly a problem for new born babies. Witnessing that needle punches itself is a painful experience.

Simple Solution:

One of the simplest solution to this problem is illuminating the veins by powerful LEDs. This solution relies on the fact that there is a change in colour of the blood, depending on whether it is carrying the oxygen or not. This change can be easily noticeable when veins are illuminated with red LEDs. By exploiting this fact, a company called veinlite made a device that consists of just LEDs (red and orange) and a battery to power them. It has been proved that this device works but it gets patented thus it costs $200 to $300. There are clones of this device, but they too cost ~$100, so these are not particularly affordable to most hospitals.

Open source version:

However, there is a nice guy called Alex, who made a open source version of veinlite and kindly shared the design files with instructions. Recently, I come across a friend who is suffering from this not so easily visible vein’s problem. Therefore, my friend’s hand was swollen and it’s really painful. So I attempted to build this vein viewer with the help of Uday. We just made a one small change to the original design of Alex, by adding a small potentiometer to adjust the brightness of the LEDs. Below are the few pics showing the build process and initial tests. I hope this will be useful to my friend. We didn’t have the exact switch used by Alex, so we adjusted the hole for the switch in the design accordingly. In the future, we will try the rechargeable battery version, if we find the cause. Please see the videos below to know, how it works.

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Top View of our 3D printed VeinViewer

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Bottom View of our 3D printed Vein Viewer

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Vein Viewer during the soldering phase

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First version printed with a wrong colour of a material.

References:

http://www.instructables.com/id/3d-Printed-Medical-Vein-Finder/

http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-an-affordable-Vein-Finder-for-use-d/

https://3dprint.com/11056/3d-printed-vein-finders/

 

 

 

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DIY, Electronics, Inspiring, LEDs, photography

Webcam DIY Microscope

I have a fascination with DIY microscopes. I have been making microscopes with ball lens and laser pointer lens etc. When these lenses are coupled with the powerful smartphone cameras, they produce highly magnified images of microscopic objects. However, I come across a very interesting webcam microscope through Guadi labs. Basically, when we reverse the lens of the webcam it acts as a microscope. There are many versions of this microscope in the Gaudi labs website, from which I chose the laser cut version for its simplicity. The parts were cut in 2016 when I was in St Andrews, but now only they are assembled as I kept this project in cold due to other interesting projects. The only improvement, I have done is connecting LEDS of different colours to the webcam board in place if its original white LEDS. That way I am planning to excite many fluorescent proteins.

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Webcam Microscope front view

 

Below you can find the microscopic images of cells (~ 30um in length) taken with this webcam microscope. I also took microscopic images taken from smartphone based microscope with laser pointer lens (details will be in another post, see reference 2). Clearly, webcam gives large magnification but small field of view. On the other hand, laser pointer lens gives smaller magnification and large field of view. So these two DIY low cost systems can be handy for biological applications. In fact, I am making one of this microscope for my colleague to quickly screen drug injected cancer cells to know whether the drug has reached inside the cells or not. I will follow up the progress of that project in a future post. I must tell you that these microscopes are far better than the $15 usb microscope attachments that can be bought online.

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Microscopic image of cancer cells taken with webcam microcope under white LED illumination. The slide was stained with a blue dye.

Cells with orange illumination

Microscopic image of cancer cells taken with webcam microcope under orange LED illumination.

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Microscopic image of cancer cells taken with webcam microcope under red LED illumination.

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Microscopic image of cancer cells taken with smartphone based microscope with laser pointer lens under white LED illumination.

 

References:

http://hackteria.org/wiki/index.php/DIY_microscopy

http://www.instructables.com/id/10-Smartphone-to-digital-microscope-conversion/

Acknowledgments:

Dundee Makerspace

Vamsi

Uday

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ARDUINO, DIY, Electronics, Inspiring, LEDs, photography, Raspberry Pi, Robotics

Experiments with a Light Meter

Why I am interested in Light meters?

When I was working in Scotland, I came across photo dynamic therapy (PDT), which uses light sensitive drugs to kill cancer cells. In the entire UK, there are only two PDT centers (afaik), one of which is in Dundee. By visiting the PDT center in Dundee, I realised that after applying the PDT drugs, doctors ask patients to wait in  sun light for two hours. There is no particular reason for exactly two hours of exposure to sun light. Therefore, it is not possible to know how much light dose has been received by the patients. To address this problem, PDT center at Dundee measured sunlight across the UK and Ireland and suggested that  cheap lux meters can be used to measure the required lux dose. I met with one of the PI and discussed about this in detail.

The problem with cheap light meters:

However, most commercially available cheap lux meters can only give instantaneous measure of light. These are originally developed for photographers to know lighting in their photo and building mangers to know lighting in a room. But PDT application  requires the lux values to be logged, aggregated to know whether the required light dose is reached. I think the only way to realise that is through connecting the lux meters to a microcontroller and stream the values to a smartphone. For that I am going to use a cheap lux meter that I can confidently modify after reading this blog post .

What I did:

I ordered the lux meter with a brand name “Ceto”from the same vendor as suggested in the blog post mentioned above. I identified the pins required to tap to get the lux values out. These are the pins on the amplifier. I soldered wires to these pins to read the voltage. So effectively LUX values are converted to voltage values in this lux meter. For example LUX of 290 is converted as 0.288V. I connected these wires to a multimeter to  see these voltage values.

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Guts of the LUX meter

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Zooming inside

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Red wire is signal

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Black wire is ground

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Hot glue to keep the wires in place

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Made a hole to the case to let the soldered wires come out, so that I can feed them into a multimeter

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More hot glue to fix the wires to the case

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Connected the wires to multimeter and we can see the light values appearing on the Multimeter as voltage values.

In the next step, I will connect the lux meter to a Arduino Uno and Bluetooth so that its possible to record the  aggregated lux values overtime time to determine the light dose for PDT treatment. I will write these details in another post.

P.S: It is just one of my hobby project, not related to my research.

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DIY, Electronics, Inspiring, Robotics

DIY Toy Centrifuge

Why I like a centrifuge?

Whenever I see a motor, I think why shouldn’t it be converted as a centrifuge. I like centrifuge as a scientific instrument, especially after seeing Lab on DVD systems to diagnose diseases. Recently, I came across Manu Prakash’s paperfuge, where whirligig/buzzer toy was modified to get high speed centrifuge without using any electricity. Although, I like the idea, it still takes more than 15 minutes to separate blood to any useful analysis such as malaria detection.  May be there are better ways to improve the existing technology to get a better centrifuge, a cost effective, functional, may be little bit funny one. Latest open source models use brushless motors used in drones to make a centrifuge. I would like to try that idea. However, one has to spend at least spend $30 to make such open source centrifuge. I would like to make a low-cost, fun toy type centrifuge, so that we can teach kids about centrifuges without spending so much.

How I made One:

I took a brushless DC motor from a CPU cooling fan and attached a conical shape of plastic that I cut from a water bottle. It looks good, I am getting decent speeds with a power bank or a computer USB. Look at the videos, where I tried to separate milk, which is not possible with this toy centrifuge. I am sure that we can separate some suspension solutions which I will try soon. So far the plus points of my design are that it doesn’t require any soldering, 3D-printing. I am planning to enclose it in a cardboard box for safety reasons, although current version doesn’t spin at high speeds to make any damage.

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Top part of a water bottel

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Attach the cap to a PC fan

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Glue to attach the cap

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Finally, PC centrifuge is here

Future Plans

I am trying to make a centrifuge that can go up to 16,000 rpm, with a system similar to the above. I already designed a 3D printed holder for tubes. I will update about it soon. Until then enjoy the footage of toy centrifuge video.

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Electronics, LEDs

Fancy Christmas Dress with LEDs

Recently, one of my friend told me that he has a fancy dress competition sort of thing in his office. We went  for shopping with a hope of finding a Christmas themed sweater with LEDs, with a hope of winning the prize. I remember seeing them in Primark in the UK, but now I moved to Ireland. In Ireland, Primark is labelled as Penneys, where we didn’t find any such fancy dress. So we bought a sweater, nonetheless with Christmas Trea on it. We decided to decorate that with LEDs. I have some LEDs lying around, which I bought from Dealz (which is Poundland in the UK). Somehow, I sewed the LEDS, but its not a neat job. But I managed to hide the ugly sewing job with another sewing job (see the pics). But the end product is very good.

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LEDs sewed on to Christmas Tree

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Blue and Yellow LEDs

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Only Blue LEDS

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Only Yellow LEDS

 

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Backside with jungle of wires

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Close-up of entangled wires

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Wires covered with a napkin

 

My friend won the fancy dress prize, not because he was the only one to wear a sweater with LEDs, but others have just bought their dresses with LEDs already built into them. Moreover, their LEDs were quite low power ones, which can’t be seen in dark, where as ours is quite powerful. Why not, we are powering with 4AA batteries versus their coin batteries.

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ARDUINO, Inspiring, Robotics

Can we 3D print Human beings?

Introduction:

Until and unless, you are hiding under caves, you might have heard about 3D printers. If not, 3D printing is just one step more than 2D printing. In normal 2D printing,  information is printed on a surface (usually a piece of paper).  In 3D printing, we can construct three dimensional objects by continuously printing one layer on top of another layer. Using this advanced technology, we can print plastic toys, concrete houses, custom shaped) chocolates (ah Chocolates :p), cars and even rocket engines. Most of the time, we see hobbyists using the 3D printers to make cool plastic models.

What bio scientists can do with 3D-printers?

They can use 3D printers to print the artificial organs using single (live) cells as building blocks. Recent examples of brain cell, heart embryos, prosthetic skull, and legs are evident of the exponential growth in the 3D printing technology.

That immediately, brings up the question, can we put together the 3D-printeded tissues of heart, brain, skull, skeleton, and nerves to make/3D print a complete animal, even a human being?

Does God permit us to do so?

Most of the religious scriptures tell us that we are all constructed from the basic elements soil, water and air. Bible says 3 elements, Baghadgita says 5 elements and Quran says just 2 elements. So the point is somehow it’s possible to copy the Nature, if not the God.

So can we do it?

Let’s do the math first. A human body consists of 10^14 or 100 Trillion single cells. 50 Million cells die/replaced every second.

Little philosophical pause

That means part of us are die and reborn every day. Can you appreciate the beauty of God’s creation for a moment? How complex giants are we?

Let’s come back to science

Using the current 3D printing technology developed by Prof. Boris Chichkov in Germany, we can print 10^8 single cells per second. That means a complete human body can be printed in 2 hours and 47 minutes. Hold your breath. Prof. Boris Chichkov is claiming that it’s even possible to improve the current technology to print 10^10 single cells per second, we can 3D-print a man/woman in 30 seconds. I don’t know about you, but my heart skipped a beat when I was looking at those numbers for the first time. So many philosophical questions were blowing my mind, and I don’t have answers for any of them.

Why do you care?

Because, printing the individual organs, if not the entire body has some immediate benefits:

  • We can print the organs such as hearts and liver to save many lives.
  • For example, In India 200,000 people need a new kidney every year and 100,000 need a new liver. We can stop people dying due to lack of organ donors.
  • In many cases, like developing countries, organ replacement is a costly affair and it involves many kinds of bad things such as human trafficking. So we can avoid that mess, by simply printing the required organs, like how we buy an injection in a shop.
  • The 3D printed bodies can be used as pedagogic tools to teach biology/anatomy to students. Imagine saving lives of many frogs and rats in scientific labs to learn biology.
  • We can rapidly test the drugs on artificial organs, before going for trails on rats and human beings. It will save serious money and time to develop new drugs.

 

Why do I care?

Because, apart from the above reasons, I am making a syringe pump in recent times. Using that I am going to make a bio printer, not to print organs but to print biostructures such as….I don’t know yet. But why? I am just curious. How? Will tell you soon. Is it my main research? Hell no. It’s just one of my hobby project. So it will take some time to see the pictures and videos of me doing bioprinting.

Take away message:

Yes, it is possible to 3D print human beings, or in general animals (at least in principle). Like any technology, it’s more useful than harmful when used in the right spirit.

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Uncategorized

Key lessons for start-ups

Recently, I have attended a start-up skills meet up organised by Scottish enterprise. One of the presenter is Kelvin, who has more than 20 years of experience as an inventor. The synopsis of his lecture are:

  • Start-ups should always advertise the benefits to the customers rather than the features of the product.
  • It is best to talk to relevant trade associations as they can introduce inventors to potential customers. This is a completely new perspective for me.
  • It is good to call the relevant people directly on telephone. People are willing to help most of the time.
  • We should do as many chicken gun tests (aka failure case studies) on the product before going big.
  • Asking right questions to customers for feedback, which gives invaluable insights for the product.
  • Knowing your business model is very important. One should know whether it is good to sell/rent/license their product.

In the next session, we leaned that there are more than one way of doing marketing. One of the best ways is third party referrals. So getting introduced by some known person would bring us many customers in less time. And it is especially true for start-ups which usually don’t have enough resources for marketing. Knowing the fears of potential customers is also important. It is winning over their fears that makes customers to buy our products. Mr. Kelvin emphasised that sending the demo product to potential customers and taking their testimonials would be one of the best strategy.

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